Raspberry Pi based mostly Supercomputer With Water Cooling Expertise

There are areas the place we’d like small computing machines that may work collectively like a supercomputer. Allow us to see right here how it may be performed.Raspberry Pi based mostly Supercomputer With Water Cooling Expertise

Most supercomputers have interconnected CPUs with a grasp node CPU that divides a big computing process into smaller duties. These smaller duties are assigned to the interconnected CPUs, which work collectively to complete the duty in a lot lesser time.

So allow us to design our personal supercomputer, which might be a primary system the place you may join as many nodes as you need to fulfill your computation and processing want. We will use single-board computer systems and join them to one another and make certainly one of them the grasp node. The grasp node would distribute the duties and management all the opposite computer systems.

The elements required for this undertaking are listed below the Invoice of Materials desk. The writer’s prototype is proven in Fig. 1.

Every node of the cluster for our supercomputer would want the elements talked about below the Invoice of Materials. To make a cluster supercomputer of 100 RPI, you would want the 100 units of the above.

You’ll be able to design both a easy rack based mostly system or design a block of every node and join the blocks to make a big cluster for private use. Allow us to see how one can make a block based mostly cluster supercomputer, the place every block has two CPUs with their very own separate pre-configured energy administration and cooling techniques. This design provides you the pliability so as to add as many particular person cluster blocks as required. You’ll be able to obtain even one terabytes of computing energy by including sufficient of those single node blocks.

Allow us to design the one block casing that may maintain two RPi single-board computer systems and the cylindrical water cooling reservoir. Within the case design maintain two cuts on entrance facet to show the USB and Ethernet ports of RPi. Maintain two holes on the backside to cross the wires and connectors of energy provide (see Fig. 2). Additionally make some vent holes for air circulation to maintain the system cool.

After designing the {hardware} casing as described above, 3D print it. You can also make your individual customized design should you like, and even go for a rack based mostly system and arrange the cooling system and CPUs within the rack setup.

A great cooling system for the supercomputer is important because the CPUs could be doing advanced duties and will get heated up shortly. A twin cooling system utilizing first thermoelectric after which water cooling is beneficial. For higher consequence, a liquid coolant can be utilized instead of water.

For the water/coolant reservoir, you should utilize an air-tight clear cylindrical container fabricated from glass or plastic, which inserts contained in the case designed earlier. The reservoir have to be leak-proof to keep away from any harm to the close by digital elements or trigger a brief circuit.

As proven in Fig. 3, make holes for the water inlet and outlet pipes within the reservoir and one other gap for the wiring of the immersive water pump. Join the water pipes and the wires and seal the holes with rubber based mostly glue to make sure there is no such thing as a water leakage from the reservoir. Refer Fig. 4, Fig. 5, and Fig. 6 for particulars.

Fig. 4: Water inlet and outlet holes made airtight and leakproof with glue
Fig. 4: Water inlet and outlet holes made hermetic and leakproof with glue

Fig. 5: Water reservoir lid
Fig. 5: Water reservoir lid

Supercomputer with cooling system
Fig. 6: The reservoir crammed with liquid

Cowl the digital elements within the reservoir with a plastic sheet or cello tape to stop any water drops fashioned attributable to humidity inside don’t create any drawback. Put the inlet and the outlet pipes contained in the aluminium water cooling block (see Fig. 7 and Fig. 8) and join the water pump and thermoelectric wires to a 5V DC energy provide.

Fig. 7: Thermoelectric module setting on processor chip of RPi
Fig. 7: Thermoelectric module setting on processor chip of RPi

Fig. 8: Aluminium block for water cooling
Fig. 8: Aluminium block for water cooling


With the cooling water pump reservoir and entire cooling system able to mount, now you can assemble the elements and begin making a block of the supercomputer. First repair the RPi single-board laptop contained in the case you might have designed, as proven in Fig. 9, and mount the primary cooling block on that. Subsequent, mount the second RPi contained in the case, ensuring the ports are uncovered and accessible by means of the cuts within the case that had been made for that function.

Raspberry Pi placed in the case
Fig. 9: RPI positioned within the case

Repair the second RPi with a screw after which repair the thermoelectric and cooling block on that as nicely. Then cowl prime facet of the case. To make it look cool and to see the water flowing, use a clear acrylic sheet to shut the case. The main points might be seen in Fig. 10 by means of Fig. 12.

Fig. 10: The reservoir fixed with RPI in the case
Fig. 10: The reservoir fastened with RPI within the case

Fig. 11: Top view
Fig. 11: High view

Refer the connection diagram proven in Fig. 13 and accordingly join the water pump and thermoelectric cooler to 5-12V, 2A DC energy provide and energy the RPi with 2A, 5V DC energy provide.

Raspberry Pi with Cooling System
Fig. 12: Fixing of the water cooler module

Software program

Set up the newest Raspbeian OS within the RPi. Create a grasp unit that can divide the advanced process to all its constituent nodes and management them for processing and calculations, like a supercomputer. To do this, open the Linux terminal and arrange the MPI. Set up MiPIH and put together the grasp node that divides and controls the duty among the many cluster of computer systems.

sudo apt-get replace

Change the ‘pi’ person password.

Beneath ‘Networking,’ change the hostname to nodeX, changing X with a singular quantity (node1, node2, and many others). Node1 shall be our grasp unit.

Setup Ethernet:

sudo nano /and many others/dhcpcd.conf

Go to the top of file and add the next:

interface eth0
static ip_address=

Then create distinctive identification:

ssh-keygen -t rsa
Setup grasp node

Now the grasp node is prepared. Open the terminal of the second node and join Ethernet to each the RPi with Ethernet connector and repeat the above steps in that as nicely. For including extra nodes (which might be in hundreds) create the bootable picture of the above RPi setup and put together the SD card of all these nodes with the identical picture.

Raspberry Pi Supercomputer Circuit
Fig. 13: Connection diagram of the undertaking

Join all of them with an Ethernet connector and boot all of them and set them as nodes of the grasp utilizing the next instructions and configurations. Open the terminal and run the next on every node of the supercomputer:

sudo apt set up mpich

As soon as full, check MPI is engaged on every node:

mpiexec -n 1 hostname

From node1 (, run the next command:

mpiexec -n 4 –hosts,,, hostname

After each setup has gone nicely, you may check the system. Join every node and energy all of them.

To check the supercomputer, obtain the code from Github.

Open the terminal of the grasp node and run the next in Linux terminal:

mpiexec -n 1 python3 1000

While you run the above code, the advanced process of discovering the prime quantity as much as 1,000, or 4,000, and even 100,000, is split amongst all of the nodes within the system and the nodes course of collectively and calculate to provide the output. Fig. 14 reveals how this system runs.

Supercomputer Project Testing
Fig. 14: Working the code

Obtain Supply code

Ashwini Kumar Sinha is an IoT and AI fanatic tech journalist at EFY

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